Category Archives: space travel

THE NEXT 5,000 YEARS

"For the most part The Domain ignores Earth and its inhabitants, except to ensure that the resources of the planet itself are not permanently spoiled.  This sector of the galaxy was annexed by The Domain and is the possession of The Domain, to do with or dispose of as it deems best.  The moon of Earth and the asteroid belt have become a permanent base of operations for The Domain Forces.


Needless to say, any attempt by humans or others to interfere in the activities of The Domain in this solar system -- even if it were possible, which it definitely is not -- will be terminated swiftly.  This is not a serious concern, as I mentioned earlier, since homo sapiens cannot operate in open space.

Of course we will continue with the next steps of The Domain Expansion Plan which has remained on schedule for billions of years.  Over the next 5,000 years there will be increasing traffic and activity of The Domain Forces as we progress toward the center of this galaxy and beyond to spread our civilization through the universe.

 If humanity is to survive, it must cooperate to find effective solutions to the difficult conditions of your existence on Earth.  Humanity must rise above its human form and discover where they are, and that they are IS-BEs, and who they really are as IS-BEs in order to  transcend the notion that they are merely biological bodies.  Once these realizations have been made, it may be possible to escape your current imprisonment.  Otherwise, there will be no future for the IS-BEs on Earth."

-- Excerpted from Top Secret government transcripts published in the book, ALIEN INTERVIEW

Originally posted 2010-07-21 16:41:52. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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THE DOMAIN MISSION

“Airl told me her reasons for coming to Earth and for being in the area of the 509th Bomber Squadron. [i] (Footnote) She was sent by her superior officers to investigate the explosions of nuclear weapons which have been tested in New Mexico. [ii] (Footnote) Her superiors ordered her to gather information from the atmosphere that could be used to determine the extent of radiation [iii] (Footnote) and potential harm this might cause to the environment. During her mission, the space craft was struck by a lighting [iv] (Footnote), which caused her to lose control and crash.

The space craft is operated by IS-BEs who use “doll bodies” in much the same way that an actor wears a mask and costume.  It is a like a mechanical tool through which to operate in the physical world.  She, as well as all of the other IS-BEs of the officer class and their superiors, inhabit these “doll bodies” when they are on duty in space.  When they are not on duty, they “leave” the body and operate, think, communicate, travel, and exist without the use of a body.

The bodies are constructed of synthetic materials, including a very sensitive electrical nervous system, to which each IS-BE adjusts themselves or “tune in” to an electronic wavelength [v] (Footnote) that is matched uniquely to the wavelength or frequency emitted by each IS-BE.  Each IS-BE is capable of creating a unique wave frequency which identifies them, much like a radio signal frequency. This serves, in part, as identification like a finger print.  The doll body acts like a radio receiver for the IS-BE.  No two frequencies or doll bodies are exactly the same.

The bodies of each IS-BE crew member are likewise tuned into and connected to the “nervous system” built into the space craft.  The space craft is built in much the same way as the doll body.  It is adjusted specifically to the frequency of each IS-BE crew member.  Therefore, the craft can be operated by the “thoughts” or energy emitted by the IS-BE.  It is really a very simple, direct control system.  So, there are no complicated controls or navigation equipment on board the space craft.  They operate as an extension of the IS-BE.

When the lightning bolt struck the space craft this caused a short circuit and consequently “disconnected” them from the control of the ship momentarily which resulted in the crash.

Airl was, and still is, an officer, pilot and engineer in an expeditionary force which is part of a space opera [vi] (Footnote) civilization which refers to itself as “The Domain”.  This civilization controls a vast number of galaxies, stars, planets, moons and asteroids throughout an area of space that is approximately one-fourth of the entire physical universe!  The continuing mission of her organization is to “Secure, control and expand the territory and resources of The Domain”.

— Excerpt from the Top Secret military transcripts published in the book ALIEN INTERVIEW, Edited by Lawrence R. Spencer

__________________________________________________

FOOTNOTES:

[i] “…509th Bomber Squadron…”

“The 509th Composite Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 509th Operations Group, is a current unit of the United States Air Force. It was tasked with developing and employing a combat delivery system for the Atomic bomb and conducted the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945.

The group later became a medium bombardment group of the Strategic Air Command, as the combat component of the 509th Bomb Wing, before being inactivated in 1952. Its lineage, honors, and history were also bestowed on the like-numbered wing in 1947.

The 509th Composite Group was constituted on December 9, 1944, and activated on December 17, 1944, at Wendover Army Air Field, Utah, commanded by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets. Colonel Tibbets had been assigned to organize and command a combat group to develop the means of delivering an atomic weapon by airplane against targets in Germany and Japan. Because the flying squadrons of the group consisted of both bomber and transport aircraft, the group was designated as a “composite” rather than a “bombardment” unit.

The mission profile for both atomic missions called for weather scouts to precede the strike force by an hour, reporting weather conditions in code over each proposed target. The strike force consisted of a bombing aircraft, with the aircraft commander responsible for all decisions in reaching the target and the bomb commander (weaponeer) responsible for all decisions regarding dropping of the bomb; a blast instrumentation aircraft which would fly the wing of the strike aircraft and drop instruments by parachute into the target area; and a camera ship, which would also carry scientific observers. Each mission would have one “spare” aircraft accompanying it as far as Iwo Jima to take over carrying the bomb if the strike aircraft encountered mechanical problems.

The Hiroshima mission was flown as planned and executed without significant problems or diversion from plan. The Nagasaki mission, however, originally targeted Kokura and encountered numerous problems which resulted in the bombing of the secondary target, a delay in bombing of almost two hours, detonation of the bomb some distance from the designated aiming point, and a diversion of the strike force to emergency landings on Okinawa because of a lack of fuel. However the basic objectives of the mission were met despite the problems.

Lieutenant Jacob Beser flew on both attack aircraft (the only man to do so), although Maj. Charles W. Sweeney and crew observed Hiroshima from The Great Artiste and dropped the bomb on Nagasaki from Bockscar. Lawrence H. Johnston of Project Alberta observed all three nuclear explosions, including the Trinity test.

While the Nagasaki mission was in progress, two B-29’s of the 509th took off from Tinian to return to Wendover. Lt.Col. Classen, the deputy group commander, in the unnamed victor 94 and crew B-6 in Jabit III, together with their ground crews, were sent back to stage for the possibility of transporting further bomb assemblies to Tinian. However the plutonium cores were still at Site Y, and on August 13 Gen. Groves ordered that all shipments of material be stopped. His order reached Los Alamos in time to keep the third bomb from being shipped. The first Atomic War lasted 9 days, August 6 through August 15, 1945.

After the Nagasaki mission the group continued combat operations, making another series of pumpkin bomb attacks (12 dropped) on August 14. With the announcement of the Japanese surrender, however, the 509th CG flew three further training missions involving 31 sorties on August 18, 20, and 22, then stood down from operations.”

See Article at Wikipedia.org: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[ii] “… nuclear weapons which have been tested in New Mexico.”

“The first nuclear weapons test was conducted in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, during the Manhattan Project, and given the codename “Trinity”. The test was originally to confirm that the implosion-type nuclear weapon design was feasible, and to give an idea of what the actual size and effects of a nuclear explosion would be before they were used in combat against Japan. While the test gave a good approximation of many of the explosion’s effects, it did not give an appreciable understanding of nuclear fallout, which was not well understood by the project scientists until well after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.”

 

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iii] “…radiation…”

The dangers of radioactivity and of radiation were not immediately recognized. Acute effects of radiation were first observed in the use of X-rays when the Serbo-Croatian-American electric engineer Nikola Tesla intentionally subjected his fingers to X-rays in 1896. He published his observations concerning the burns that developed, though he attributed them to ozone rather than to X-rays. His injuries healed later.

The genetic effects of radiation, including the effects on cancer risk, were recognized much later. In 1927 Hermann Joseph Muller published research showing genetic effects, and in 1946 was awarded the Nobel prize for his findings.

Before the biological effects of radiation were known, many physicians and corporations had begun marketing radioactive substances as patent medicine and radioactive quackery. Examples were radium enema treatments, and radium-containing waters to be drunk as tonics. Marie Curie spoke out against this sort of treatment, warning that the effects of radiation on the human body were not well understood (Curie later died from aplastic anemia assumed due to her work with radium, but later examination of her bones showed that she had been a careful laboratory worker and had a low burden of radium. A more likely cause was her exposure to unshielded X-ray tubes while a volunteer medical worker in WWI). By the 1930s, after a number of cases of bone necrosis and death in enthusiasts, radium-containing medical products had nearly vanished from the market.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iv] …”the space craft was struck by a bolt of lighting”…

“Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms. The leader of a bolt of lightning can travel at speeds of 60,000 m/s, and can reach temperatures approaching 30,000 °C (54,000 °F), hot enough to fuse soil or sand into glass channels. There are over 16 million lightning storms every year.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[v] …”electronic wavelength”…

“In physics, wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency. It is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Examples of wave-like phenomena are light, water waves, and sound waves. In a wave, a property varies with the position. For example, this property can be the air pressure for a sound wave, or the magnitude of the electric or the magnetic field for light. The wavelengths of frequencies audible to the human ear (20 Hz–20 kHz) are between approximately 17 m and 17 mm, respectively. Visible light ranges from deep red, roughly 700 nm to violet, roughly 400 nm (430–750 THz). For other examples, see electromagnetic spectrum.”

 

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[vi] …”space opera” civilization”…

“It was not until the 1920s that the space opera proper appeared in the pulp magazines Weird Tales and Amazing Stories. Unlike earlier stories of space adventure, which either related the invasion of Earth by extraterrestrials, or concentrated on the invention of a space vehicle by a genius inventor,

pure space opera simply took space travel for granted (usually by setting the story in the far future), skipped the preliminaries, and launched straight into tales of derring-do among the stars.

The first stories of this type were J. Schlossel’s The Second Swarm (Spring 1928) in Amazing Stories Quarterly and Edmond Hamilton’s Crashing Suns (August-September 1928) and The Star Stealers (February 1929) in Weird Tales . Similar stories by other writers followed through 1929 and 1930; by 1931 the space opera was well-established as a dominant sub-genre of science fiction.

The transition from the older space-voyage story to the space opera can be seen in the works of E. E. “Doc” Smith. His first published work, The Skylark of Space (August-October 1928, Amazing Stories), merges the traditional tale of a scientist inventing a space-drive with planetary romance in the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs; but by the time of the sequel, Skylark Three (August-October 1930, Amazing Stories) which introduces the space faring race of the Fenachrone, Smith had moved closer to a space opera mode.

Space opera in its most familiar form was a product of 1930s-40s pulp magazines. Like early science fiction in general, space opera borrowed much of its style from established adventure, crime, and thriller genres. Notable influences included stories that described adventures on exotic or uncivilized frontiers, e.g. the American West, Africa, or the Orient. The imagined future of space opera included immense space liners, intrepid explorers of unknown worlds, pirates of the space ways, and tough but incorruptible space police.

E. E. “Doc” Smith’s later Lensman Series and the works of Edmond Hamilton, John W. Campbell, and Jack Williamson in the 1930s and 1940s were popular with readers and much imitated by other writers. By the early 1940s, the repetitiousness and extravagance of some of these stories led to objections from some fans.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

Originally posted 2012-01-16 15:12:25. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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SPACE STATIONS

“In the case of the acquisition of Earth by The Domain, the rulers of The Domain have chosen not to openly reveal this intention to the “native inhabitants” of Earth until a later time when it may, or may not, suit their interests to reveal themselves.  For the present time, it is not strategically necessary to make the presence of The Domain Expeditionary Force known to Mankind.  In fact, until now, it has been very aggressively hidden, for reasons that will be revealed later.

The asteroid belt near Earth is a very small, but important location for The Domain in this part of space.  Actually, some of the objects in our solar system are very valuable for use as low-gravity “space stations”.  They are interested primarily in the low gravity satellites in this solar system which consists mainly of the side of the moon facing away from Earth [i] (Footnote) and the asteroid belt, which was a planet that was destroyed billions of years ago, and to a lesser degree, Mars and Venus.  Dome structures synthesized from gypsum [ii] (Footnote) or underground bases covered by electromagnetic force screens [iii] (Footnote) are easily constructed to house the Domain forces.

Once an area of space is acquired by The Domain and becomes a part of the territory under its control, it is treated as the “property” of The Domain.  The space station near the planet Earth is important only because it lay along a path of The Domain expansion route toward the center of the Milky Way galaxy and beyond.  Of course, everyone in The Domain is aware of this — except for the people of Earth.”

— Excerpted from the Top Secret transcripts published in the book ALIEN INTERVIEW 


FOOTNOTES:

[i] “… They are interested primarily in the “low gravity” satellites in this space station which consists mainly of the dark side of the moon…”.

“According to the NASA Astronaut Neil Armstrong the aliens have a base on the Moon and (the aliens) told us in no uncertain terms to get off and stay off the Moon!

Sound far fetched? Milton Cooper, a Naval Intelligence Officer tells us that not only does the Alien Moon Base exist but the U.S. Naval Intelligence Community refers to the Alien Moon Base as “Luna,” that there is a huge mining operation going on there, and that is where the aliens keep their huge mother ships while the trips to Earth are made in smaller “flying saucers”.

LUNA: The Alien base on the far side of the Moon. It was seen and filmed by the Apollo astronauts. A base, a mining operation using very large machines, and the very large alien craft described in sighting reports as mother ships exist there. -Milton Cooper

Did Apollo 11 Encounter UFOs on the Moon? from the Book “Above Top Secret” by Timothy Good.

According to hitherto unconfirmed reports, both Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin saw UFOs shortly after their historic landing on the Moon in Apollo 11 on 21 July 1969. I remember hearing one of the astronauts refer to a “light” in or on a carter during the television transmission, followed by a request from mission control for further information. Nothing more was heard.

According to a former NASA employee Otto Binder, unnamed radio hams with their own VHF receiving facilities that bypassed NASA’s broadcasting outlets picked up the following exchange:

NASA: What’s there? Mission Control calling Apollo 11…

Apollo: These “Babies” are huge, Sir! Enormous! OH MY GOD! You wouldn’t believe it! I’m telling you there are other spacecraft out there, lined up on the far side of the crater edge! They’re on the Moon watching us!

In 1979, Maurice Chatelain, former chief of NASA Communications Systems confirmed that Armstrong had indeed reported seeing two UFOs on the rim of a crater. “The encounter was common knowledge in NASA,” he revealed, “but nobody has talked about it until now.”

Soviet scientists were allegedly the first to confirm the incident. “According to our information, the encounter was reported immediately after the landing of the module,” said Dr. Vladimir Azhazha, a physicist and Professor of Mathematics at Moscow University. “Neil Armstrong relayed the message to Mission Control that two large, mysterious objects were watching them after having landed near the moon module. But his message was never heard by the public-because NASA censored it. “

According to another Soviet scientist, Dr. Aleksandr Kazantsev, Buzz Aldrin took color movie film of the UFOs from inside the module, and continued filming them after he and Armstrong went outside. Dr. Azhazha claims that the UFOs departed minutes after the astronauts came out on to the lunar surface.

Maurice Chatelain also confirmed that Apollo 11’s radio transmissions were interrupted on several occasions in order to hide the news from the public. Before dismissing Chatelain’s sensational claims, it is worth noting his impressive background in the aerospace industry and space program. His first job after moving from France was as an electronics engineer with Convair, specializing in telecommunications, telemetry, and radar. In 1959 he was in charge of an electromagnetic research group, developing new radar and telecommunications systems for Ryan. One of his eleven patents was an automatic flights to the Moon. Later, at North American Aviation, Chatelain was offered the job of designing and building the Apollo communications and data-processing systems.

Chatelain claims that “all Apollo and Gemini flights were followed, both at a distance and sometimes also quite closely, by space vehicles of extraterrestrial origin-flying saucers, or UFOs, if you want to call them by that name. Every time it occurred, the astronauts informed Mission Control, who then ordered absolute silence.” He goes on to say:

“I think that Walter Schirra aboard Mercury 8 was the first of the astronauts to use the code name ‘Santa Claus’ to indicate the presence of flying saucers next to space capsules. However, his announcements were barely noticed by the general public.

It was a little different when James Lovell on board the Apollo 8 command module came out from behind the moon and said for everybody to hear:

‘PLEASE BE INFORMED THAT THERE IS A SANTA CLAUS.’

Even though this happened on Christmas Day 1968, many people sensed a hidden meaning in those words.”

Rumors persist. NASA may well be a civilian agency, but many of its programs are funded by the defense budget and most of the astronauts are subject to military security regulations. Apart from the fact that the National Security Agency screens all films and probably radio communications as well. We have the statements by Otto Binder, Dr. Garry Henderson and Maurice Chatelain that the astronauts were under strict orders not to discuss their sightings. And Gordon Cooper has testified to a United Nations committee that one of the astronauts actually witnessed a UFO on the ground. If there is no secrecy, why has this sighting not been made public?

A certain professor, who wished to remain anonymous, was engaged in a discussion with Neil Armstrong during a NASA symposium.

Professor: What REALLY happened out there with Apollo 11?

Armstrong: It was incredible, of course we had always known there was a possibility, the fact is, we were warned off! (by the Aliens). There was never any question then of a space station or a moon city.

Professor: How do you mean “warned off”?

Armstrong: I can’t go into details, except to say that their ships were far superior to ours both in size and technology – Boy, were they big!… and menacing! No, there is no question of a space station.

Professor: But NASA had other missions after Apollo 11?

Armstrong: Naturally-NASA was committed at that time, and couldn’t risk panic on Earth. But it really was a quick scoop and back again.

Armstrong confirmed that the story was true but refused to go into further detail, beyond admitting that the CIA was behind the cover-up.

Reasonable activity of an alien civilization showed up unexpectedly close to us. We were not ready for it psychologically

We still can come across publications trying to find an answer to the question: Are we alone in the universe? At the same time, presence of reasonable creatures has been detected just close to our home, in the Moon. However, the discovery was immediately classified as secret, as it was so much incredible that even could shake the already existing social principles, reports Russia’s newspaper “Vecherny Volgograd.”

Here is an extract from the official press-release:

“NASA scientists and engineers participating in exploration of Mars and Moon reported results of their discoveries at a briefing at the Washington national press club on March 21, 1996. It was announced for the first time that man-caused structures and objects had been discovered on the Moon.” The scientists spoke rather cautiously and evasively about the functioning objects, with the exception of UFO. They always mentioned the man-caused objects as possible, and pointed out the information was still under study, and official results would be published later.

It was mentioned at the briefing as well that the Soviet Union used to own some photo materials proving presence of reasonable activity on the Moon. And although it wasn’t identified what kind of reasonable activity it was, thousands of photo-and video materials photographed from the Apollo and the Clementine space station demonstrated many parts on the lunar surface where the activity and its traces were perfectly evident. The video films and photos made by U.S. astronauts during the Apollo program were demonstrated at the briefing. And people were extremely surprised why the materials hadn’t been presented to the public earlier. And NASA specialists answered: “It was difficult to forecast the reaction of people to the information that some creatures had been or still were on the Moon. Besides, there were some other reasons to it, which were beyond NASA.”

Specialist for lunar artifacts Richard Hoagland says that NASA is still trying to veil photo materials before they are published in public catalogues and files, they do retouching or partially refocus them while copying. Some investigators, Hoagland is among them, suppose that an extraterrestrial race had used the Moon as a terminal station during their activity on the Earth. The suggestions are confirmed by the legends and myths invented by different nations of our planet.

Ruins of lunar cities stretched along many kilometers, huge transparent domes on massive basements, numerous tunnels and other constructions make scientists reconsider their opinions concerning the lunar problems. How the Moon appeared and principles of its revolving around the Earth still pose a great problem for scientists.

Some partially destroyed objects on the lunar surface can’t be placed among natural geological formations, as they are of complex organization and geometrical structure. In the upper part of Rima hadley, not far from the place where the Apollo-15 had landed, a construction surrounded with a tall D-shaped wall was discovered. As of now, different artifacts have been discovered in 44 regions.

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Houston Planetary Institute and specialists from the bank of space information are investigating the regions. Mysterious terrace-shaped excavations of the rock have been discovered near the Tiho crater. The concentric hexahedral excavations and the tunnel entry at the terrace side cant be results of natural geological processes; instead, they look very much like open cast mines.

A transparent dome raised above the crater edge was discovered near the crater Copernicus. The dome is unusual as it is glowing white and blue from inside. A rather unusual object, which is unusual indeed even for the Moon, was discovered in the upper part of the Factory area. A disk of about 50 meters in diameter stands on a square basement surrounded with rhombi walls. In the picture, close to the rhombi, we can also see a dark round embrasure in the ground, which resembles an entry in an underground caponier. There is a regular rectangular area between Factory and the crater Copernicus which is 300 meters wide 400 meters long.

Apollo 10 astronauts made a unique picture (AS10-32-4822) of a one-mile long object called Castle, which is hanging at the height of 14 kilometers and casts a distinct shadow on the lunar surface. The object seems to be consisting of several cylindrical units and a large conjunctive unit. Internal porous structure of the Castle is clearly seen in one of the pictures, which makes an impression that some parts of the object are transparent.

As it turned out at the briefing where many NASA scientists were present, when Richard Hoagland had requested originals of the Castle pictures for the second time, no pictures were found there at all. They disappeared even from the list of pictures made by the Apollo 10 crew. Only intermediate pictures of the object were found in the archives, which unfortunately don’t depict the internal structure of the object.

When Apollo-12 crew landed on the lunar surface, they saw that the landing was observed by a half-transparent pyramidal object. It was hanging just several meters above the lunar surface and shimmered with all rainbow colors against the black sky.

In 1969, when the film about astronauts traveling to the Sea of Storms was demonstrated (the astronauts saw the strange objects once again, which were later called “striped glasses”), NASA finally understood what consequences such kind of control could bring. Astronaut Mitchell answered the question about his feelings after a successful return the following: “My neck still aches as I had to constantly turn my head around because we felt we were not alone there. We had no choice but pray.” Johnston, who worked at the Houston Space Center and studied photos and video materials done during the Apollo program, discussed the artifacts with Richard Hoagland and said, the NASA leadership was awfully annoyed with the great number of anomalous, to put it mildly, objects on the Moon. It was even said that piloted flights to the Moon could be banned in the programs network.

Investigators are especially interested in ancient structures resembling partially destroyed cities. The orbital shooting reveals an astonishingly regular geometry of square and rectangular constructions. They resemble our terrestrial cities seen from the height of 5-8 kilometers. A mission control specialist commented on the pictures: “Our guys observed ruins of the Lunar cities, transparent pyramids, domes and God knows what else, which are currently hidden deep inside the NASA safes, and felt like Robinson Crusoe when he suddenly came across prints of human bare feet on the sand of the desert island.” What do geologists and scientists say after studying the pictures of lunar cities and other anomalous objects? They say, such objects can’t be natural formations. “We should admit they are artificial, especially the domes and pyramids.” Reasonable activity of an alien civilization showed up unexpectedly close to us. We were not ready for it psychologically, and some people hardly believe they are true even now.”

Translated by Maria Gousseva (original source =  http://english.pravda.ru/main/2002/10/05/37771.html)

—  Source:  http://www.ufocasebook.com/moon.html

[ii] “… synthesized from gypsum…”

Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as early as the Permian age. Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near surface exposures. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur.

The word gypsum is derived from the aorist form of the Greek verb μαγειρεύω, “to cook”, referring to the burnt or calcined mineral. Because the gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartre district of Paris has long furnished burnt gypsum used for various purposes, this material has been called plaster of Paris. It is also used in foot creams, shampoos and many other hair products.

Because gypsum dissolves over time in water, gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. However, the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 710 km² (275 sq mile) expanse of white gypsum sand, enough to supply the construction industry with drywall for 1,000 years.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iii] “… electromagnetic force…”

“In physics, the Lorentz force is the force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. Lorentz introduced this force in 1892. However, the discovery of the Lorentz force was before Lorentz’s time. In particular, it can be seen at equation (77) in Maxwell’s 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. Later, Maxwell listed it as equation “D” of his 1864 paper, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, as one of the eight original Maxwell’s equations. In this paper the equation was written as follows:

where

A is the magnetic vector potential,

φ is the electrostatic potential,

H is the magnetic field H,

μ is magnetic permeability.

Although this equation is obviously a direct precursor of the modern Lorentz force equation, it actually differs in two respects:

  • It does not contain a factor of q, the charge. Maxwell didn’t use the concept of charge. The definition of E used here by Maxwell is unclear. He uses the term electromotive force. He operated from Faraday’s electro-tonic state A, which he considered to be a momentum in his vortex sea. The closest term that we can trace to electric charge in Maxwell’s papers is the density of free electricity, which appears to refer to the density of the aethereal medium of his molecular vortices and that gives rise to the momentum A. Maxwell believed that A was a fundamental quantity from which electromotive force can be derived.
  • The equation here contains the information that what we nowadays call E, which today can be expressed in terms of scalar and vector potentials according to

The fact that E can be expressed this way is equivalent to one of the four modern Maxwell’s equations, the Maxwell-Faraday equation.

Despite its historical origins in the original set of eight Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force is no longer considered to be one of “Maxwell’s equations” as the term is currently used (that is, as reformulated by Heaviside). It now sits adjacent to Maxwell’s equations as a separate and essential law.

Significance of the Lorentz force

While the modern Maxwell’s equations describe how electrically charged particles and objects give rise to electric and magnetic fields, the Lorentz force law completes that picture by describing the force acting on a moving point charge q in the presence of electromagnetic fields. The Lorentz force law describes the effect of E and B upon a point charge, but such electromagnetic forces are not the entire picture. Charged particles are possibly coupled to other forces, notably gravity and nuclear forces. Thus, Maxwell’s equations do not stand separate from other physical laws, but are coupled to them via the charge and current densities. The response of a point charge to the Lorentz law is one aspect; the generation of E and B by currents and charges is another.

In real materials the Lorentz force is inadequate to describe the behavior of charged particles, both in principle and as a matter of computation. The charged particles in a material medium both respond to the E and B fields and generate these fields. Complex transport equations must be solved to determine the time and spatial response of charges, for example, the Boltzmann equation or the Fokker–Planck equation or the Navier-Stokes equations. For example, see magnetohydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, electrohydrodynamics, superconductivity, stellar evolution. An entire physical apparatus for dealing with these matters has developed. See for example, Green–Kubo relations and Green’s function (many-body theory).

Although one might suggest that these theories are only approximations intended to deal with large ensembles of “point particles”, perhaps a deeper perspective is that the charge-bearing particles may respond to forces like gravity, or nuclear forces, or boundary conditions.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

Originally posted 2011-08-02 00:42:38. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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