Category Archives: memory

SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE

separation
I recently received the following e-mail from a reader of Alien Interview :
“I want to thank you for editing the book, “Alien Interview.” I know that what you have presented is the truth because I have had several personal experiences that directly confirm the facts in the book.
I want to share the fact that I have begun to remember my past existences as an Immortal Spiritual Being. Two specific sets of memories have resurfaced: I completely remember the between lives brainwashing amnesia process as well as how I was transported to Earth.
The other day I was reading your blog about the “Alien Interview” and I read an article that mentions how subjective experiences should be considered as evidence, but are rejected in the Western world. I hope that my own subjective experience helps to prove the truth you are trying to share with others.
These memories themselves resurfaced five years ago, before I had even heard of your book or your work. So what I experienced was in no way influenced by the book. At this time in my life, I was deeply contemplating who I truly was and what the purpose of my existence was. These memories resurfaced when I fell asleep one night. At first, I mistook them as dreams. But this experience was too real and too oddly specific to be a simple dream. I did not know how to make sense of this and filed it away in my mind. After I recently had a near death experience a few months ago, I discovered your book and began to read. As I read through the book everything seemed to make sense. I then remembered the experience I had five years ago and realized that everything I had experienced perfectly coincided with the information in the book. I then realized that what I had experienced was a repressed memory and not a dream.
The first experience I shall share with you was my memory of the between lives amnesia brainwashing process. When I fell asleep one night five years ago, this was what I remembered:
I was lying in a bed, dying. I was surrounded by my family at home. As my body began to fail, I feared that my consciousness would end because my body was dying. At this point I was still fully under the affects of amnesia and did not know the truth. My initial assumption was obviously false. When I died my spirit separated from my body. At first I was disoriented. I had not initially expected for my consciousness to continue after death. But then a bright white light appeared before me. It was like a rip that had formed in the room. This light was extremely beckoning and I felt compelled to travel towards it. But then I suddenly remembered that this light was bad, and I should not travel towards it. I felt the impulse to shield my thoughts from others and immediately did so. I moved away from the light and it dissipated into nothing. I was still in the room where I had died in, with my family mourning over me.
I would like to add that in the Alien Interview, Airl refers to heaven as a lie. That “heaven” was really the brainwashing amnesia stations controlled by the Old Empire. I remembered this fact and prevented myself from entering this station. In many near death experiences, many people mention a bright white light. They follow it and enter into “heaven.” Airl also mentioned that this brainwashing operation is designed to detect and capture IS-BEs after they depart the body after death. This bright white light is an IS-BE trap that serves as the entrance to the amnesia-brainwashing bases. In Alien Interview it is also mentioned that the Old Empire influences the thoughts of everyone on Earth through long range signals. I shielded my thoughts and limited my innate spiritual energy to prevent capture and detection by such devices as well as by the operatives of the Old Empire that operate this prison. I want everyone to know that it is possible to subvert these brainwashing stations and avoid capture.
Anyway to continue my experience, I had successfully avoided capture and did not enter the brainwashing station. I then turned around because another IS-BE had entered the room. She was a woman with brown hair, brown eyes and fair skin who said, “Don’t you remember me?” My memory was then triggered. This IS-BE was my soul mate, a person who I had formed a close relationship with before we were both imprisoned on Earth. I remembered that her name was Lindsay. We both hugged each other and were overjoyed. She then procured a black box from the robe she was wearing. “What is that?” I asked. She then told me how I had built this device, and although she did not know how it worked, I had told her how to operate it in case I was captured and my memory erased. This device was a black box the size of the palm of my hand. It had intricate patterns and complex electronics embedded into it.
Now, I mention having hands after I died, but the explanation for this is that IS-BEs are the creators of illusions. They can make themselves appear however they like. I wanted my spiritual form to mimic the human form, since that is what I was comfortable with at the time.
Anyway, Lindsay handed me this black box and told me to push a button on the side. I did so and the most incredible thing occurred: all of my memories were restored, all at once. All of the experiences that I had accumulated from an eternity of past existence came flooding back to me. It was the most breathtaking experience. Countless images, sounds, emotions, and experiences flashed before my eyes. It is extremely hard to describe, but it was like eternity was compressed into a single moment. The restoration of my memories seemed to last for an eternity, and yet only a moment had passed when the process was complete. I then said, “Wow, I have lived millions of past lives!” My memories, knowledge of my spiritual abilities, and my eternal identity were returned to me through the aid of this advanced piece of technology I had constructed in the past. I then said to myself, “I am finally back.” I then took Lindsay’s hand and we left the room.
In the book Airl mentions how everything in the universe was created from “the nothingness of a thought.” We also know that every material object in the universe is comprised of energy. Since everything was formed by thought, it would be logical to assume that thoughts are energy. The way that an IS-BE creates energy is through their thoughts. It would also be logical to conclude that our memories and experiences are thoughts that are comprised of energy. The reason why electric shock erases memory is because the energy from the electricity changes how our memories are formatted. In the book it is mentioned that energy can be created but not destroyed. But energy can change form. The massive amounts of energy produced by the electricity changes the form of energy our memories are comprised of, and therefore makes it inaccessible for us to consciously retrieve those memories.The device that I had invented helped change the form of that energy so that my memories could be retrieved once more. The reason why our memories could never be permanently erased is because they are comprised of energy.
The next memory that occurred in this first set of memories was a few years into the future after my death. I was extremely upset. Although I had avoided capture from the amnesia brainwashing stations, I was still trapped on Earth. In knew that an electronic net embedded in the upper atmosphere surrounded the entire planet. I knew if I were to come into contact with this electronic net, I would be electrocuted and captured. The current strategy I had been employing was to find a hole in this electric grid. Even though I had all of my memories restored, I did not have knowledge of where the gaps in this electronic field were, and I had been unable to find these gaps. I would often travel to different monuments on Earth to collect my thoughts. I remember that I loved visiting the Eiffel Tower and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. As a spiritual being, the way I would travel is I would imagine a location in my mind. I would will myself to move to that location, and the fabric of the universe would then warp around me and I would instantly arrive at my destination. Although I could roam the surface of Earth. I was unable to leave due to the electrical grid that surrounds the planet.
In the book, Airl mentions that space is the distance between an IS-BE and the object being perceived by that IS-BE. She also mentions that IS-BEs can span great distances instantly. I could travel as a spiritual being by perceiving objects and decreasing my distance from the perceived object. My experiences directly confirm the information in the book.
On this particular day, I traveled to the Eiffel Tower. I was there thinking when I remembered that IS-BEs are the source of energy. I thought foolishly that if I could amass enough energy as an IS-BE, I could possibly overpower this electric grid. I took out the black box I had invented and safeguarded my memories within the device once more in the event that I was captured. I then gave the device to Lindsay and informed her of my plan. Before she could protest, I immediately started traveling towards the upper atmosphere, towards the electric grid. I kept traveling upwards until I made contact with the electric field. I immediately stopped as though I had hit a brick wall. I was then immediately electrocuted with billions of volts of electricity. I cried out in pain.
As a side note, after I woke up, my body ached all over, as if remembering this electric shock.
After the shock was completed, I was dazed. My memories began to fade, and two IS-BEs came to retrieve me and they took me to a brainwashing base.
Now I want to mention that after this electric shock, your memories are not immediately erased. Instead, they slowly fade away, like water trickling through your fingers. I was taken to a brainwashing amnesia station and placed in a chair. The entire station was extremely white and brightly lit. The Old Empire uses a combination of technology and the influences of other IS-BEs to brainwash and hypnotize the inmates of Earth. I was placed in front of a mechanical arm with a pendulum attached at the end. This pendulum swung back and forth in front of my face. Another IS-BE was then at my side. He was one of the operatives of the Old Empire running the prison. He calmly told me what my name was (which is the name I currently have now), who my parents were, as well as where and when I was going to be born. He would slowly repeat these facts as the pendulum aided to hypnotize me. Initially, I resisted. I said, “No, that is not my name! My name is Carl! My name is Carl!” I grew desperate as I realized that I could not hold out forever. Apparently Carl is my true name. It is the name that I had chosen for myself, the name that is related to my eternal identity. After this had failed, they took me to another room to administer additional electric shocks to make me more compliant.
In the book it is mentioned that IS-BEs are not physical universe entities. They do not have a location in time or space. So the IS-BE who brainwashed me had to give me a location in space and a point in time so I could be coerced into inhabiting the correct physical body.
After I had been shocked several times, I was taken back to the hypnosis machinery. The IS-BE would then repeat my “real” name, as well as where, and when I was to be born, as well as to whom I was to be born to. He would then ask me, “Will you now go and inhabit this physical body?” The reason why he was asking my permission is because he could not force me into a physical body against my will. I needed to be coerced, or tricked into thinking I wanted to inhabit a physical body, in order to be imprisoned on Earth and not suspect anything. I kept telling him, “No.” The process of the electric shock and hypnosis then continued. Each time I lost memories as well as a sense of who I was. I was starting to crumble, to bend to their will. After one particular refusal to inhabit a physical body, the IS_BE switched tactics.
 He said, “Will you go inhabit this physical body now?”
 I said, “No, because Earth is a prison.”
“But you have a special purpose,” he replied. The operative knew he could not convince me Earth was my home. “Lindsay is down there trapped in the prison. You need to inhabit a physical body so you can save her.”
“Really?”
“Yes, you must save her. Will you now inhabit a physical body?”
“Yes,” I replied. At this point I was no longer myself. Most of my memory was gone, and they had managed to break me. As soon as I had agreed, I immediately left the base and quickly approached Earth. As I descended through the atmosphere, I remember seeing snowy mountains around me, and thought how beautiful they were. I was born in Utah in the fall, which means that nine months earlier, I was conceived in the winter. This fact confirms the snowy mountains I saw. I then approached a house, rapidly drawing closer to the physical body I would inhabit. It felt as though I was being pulled by a tractor beam, with no escape. I was trapped by the “aesthetic pain” wave emitted by physical bodies that Airl had mentioned in the book.
I then entered the body of an infant that was developing in the womb. With each passing moment, my memories began to fade. I knew that when I fully entered this body, I would lose the remainder of my memories and my identity. So I struggled against this body, trying not to enter it.
Airl mentions in the book how when physical bodies were first invented, IS-BEs would generate too much energy and would destroy the body. I was employing this same strategy in a desperate attempt to escape. When I noticed that I failed to escape the “aesthetic pain” wavelength trap, I stopped struggling. I knew if I damaged the body too much, my upcoming life on Earth would be miserable. I damaged the eyes and heart of the body in my struggle.
At the time when this memory resurfaced five years ago, I had bad eyesight, and I still do. But the fact that confirms my experiences the most is that I developed a heart condition nine months ago. The heart condition that I developed is extremely rare for my age, and the doctors could not explain why this had happened. It is a medical mystery. If these experiences were not real, how could I have known that I had a damaged heart five years before any problems manifested?
After I stopped struggling, I fully entered the body. When I did so, I completely forgot the rest of my experiences as well as who I truly was. After this, the memory ended and I woke up.
The next memory resurfaced a few days later after the first one. This memory resurfaced when I was asleep, and is about how I was transported to Earth.
I remember being in a cage. The top and bottom were made of metal, but the bars themselves were made of contained beams of pure electricity. In this memory I was not thinking in English, but when I remembered my experience, I was able to translate my own thoughts into English. I do not know what language I was speaking, but I know it definitely was not from Earth.  I was not inhabiting a physical body at the time. My thoughts went something like this:
“How could I be so stupid for rebelling against the Old Empire?” (I do not clearly remember the Old Empire’s true name. There obviously is no name for it in English. I knew what I was referring to when I remembered this experience, but I do not remember how to speak the language itself. I will continue to refer to this galactic government as the Old Empire for the sake of simplicity). I then thought, “How could I orchestrate a mutiny? I should have been smart enough to know it would have been doomed for failure. Now I am separated from Lindsay after the Old Empire tracked me down and destroyed the physical body I was inhabiting.”
The cage I was trapped in was moving through outer space, carrying me towards Earth. I was alone. I then turned and saw Earth come into view. I then thought, “Hey, I recognize this place. I have been here before when I was part of the team that restored life to this planet 70 million years ago.” I then reprimanded myself and thought, “That no longer matters. What matters now is that Earth is a prison.” As I approached the planet, I continued to ponder my fate. I referred to the planet as an “infernal zoo.” I then thought, “This is going to be the place where I am going to lose my mind.”
The more I struggled against the cage, the harder it became to move. As I was about to enter the planet the memory ended.
I woke up with a feeling of anger, loss and fear. The emotions I felt were so strong, stronger than any nightmare. So to summarize, I was transported to Earth as an IS-BE in an electronic trap. I had all of my memories when I was being transported. They were not erased until after I had arrived on Earth. I was able to remember that I was a scientist and engineer for the Old Empire, and was one of the many consultants that helped to re-engineer Earth and create new life for this planet 70 million years ago.
Before I end this email, I want to share one additional experience.
When I developed a heart condition nine months ago, I had to be immediately rushed to the hospital. There the doctors had to save my life by stopping and restarting my heart to get it to beat in a normal rhythm. So for a few seconds, I was dead. During this time, I had an out of body experience.
After the doctors had anesthetized me, my body had shut down but my mind was active. I tried to move, but couldn’t. It was like running into a brick wall. I felt a floating sensation and heard the doctor say, “McKay, are you still with us?” I tried to respond, but my lips wouldn’t move. I thought, “Of course I am still here!” As I tried to “sit up”, I began to see the room around me as my spirit was detaching from my body. I saw the doctors hands place paddles on my chest. I then finally sat up as my spirit separated from my body completely. This separation is spontaneous and painless. Now the method in which someone dies can be extremely painful, but the act of the spirit leaving the body is not. One does not have to will the spirit to leave the body at death. It just happens when the body is too damaged to inhabit. I could see clearly around the room, but no one would look at me. It was like I was invisible. No one could see me because the physical bodies that they inhabited prevented them from sensing or seeing spiritual beings easily.
I saw the heart monitor, and moved towards it. I then saw it flat line and I thought, “Oh no, I think this means I’m dead.” Now as an immortal spiritual being, I could see everything around me in full color. My vision was actually much better than when I was in my body. All of my physical senses were present. I could think and feel. I was myself. The only difference was that I did not feel the need to breathe or blink. I want people to know that conscious experience after death is exactly as it is in life, except that it is not confined to a physical body.
I then heard the doctors yell behind me, “Clear!” They shocked me and restarted my heart. The instant this happened, I was back in my body. I then woke up a few minutes later and was taken home. Although I did not tell my family what had occurred, my mother did tell me that the doctor said, “McKay, are you still with us?” when she was describing the event. So what I had heard the doctor say actually was said. This experience was as real as any other, and was not a drug induced hallucination, as some would like to believe.
In conclusion, I would like to let you know that all of these experience occurred before I had heard or even knew about the “Alien Interview” book. My experiences occurred independently of the information presented in the book. But after having these experiences, I could not continue in good conscience to say nothing. I would appreciate it greatly if you would respond to this letter. I would like to know what you think of my experiences. Feel free to publish this email on your blog about the book. I want others to benefit from my experiences, and your blog would be the only place where my letter would be accepted and understood.
Although my memory was fully restored by the device I invented, I do not remember everything now because my memory was erased before I was hypnotized and began this life on Earth.
May your eternity be as pleasant as possible,
— M.D.,  29 July, 2016

Originally posted 2016-08-01 10:00:24. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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1001 THINGS TO DO WHILE YOU’RE DEAD

A NEW BOOK by Lawrence R. Spencer.  It’s to die for…. (really)

READ IT NOW…BEFORE IT’S TOO LATE!

Support independent publishing: Buy this book on Lulu.

NEW BOOK BY LAWRENCE R SPENCER

This book is dedicated to all living beings who expect to die sometime and to all of the dead people who ever lived who may still be living somewhere, sometime, somehow. This book is also dedicated to all of the people who are living that may need some ideas about what to do with themselves after they die. And, to all the people who will soon be living by virtue of one or more of the following circumstances: birth, re-birth, resurrection, reincarnation, transconfiguration, cryogenic resuscitation, invasion of alien beings, angels falling out of grace, an act of one or more gods, transformation or transmigration, arrival from a different time / space / universe / plane of existence. If you have a faith, belief system, philosophical paradigm, or superstition to protect or defend regarding the subjects of life, death, afterlife, existence, spirits or god(s) that is your problem and I will leave you to it. Whoever you are, were or will be, I trust that you will enjoy the “Rest of Eternity”.

— Lawrence R. Spencer

Originally posted 2011-02-09 11:04:03. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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THE RENAISSANCE and CHILD PRODIGIES

“Can you imagine how much progress could have been made on Earth if people like Johannes Gutenberg [i] (Footnote), Sir Isaac Newton, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington Carver, [ii] (Footnote) Nicola Tesla, Jonas Salk, [iii] (Footnote) and Richard Trevithick, [iv] (Footnote) and many thousands of similar geniuses and inventors were living today?

Image what technical accomplishments might have been developed if men like these never died?  What if they were never given amnesia and made to forget everything they knew? What if they continued to learn and work forever?

What level of technology and civilization could be attained if Immortal Spiritual Beings like these were allowed to continue to create — in the same place and at the same time — for billions or trillions of years?

Essentially, The Domain is one civilization that has existed for trillions of years with relatively uninterrupted progress.  Knowledge has been accumulated, refined, and improved upon in nearly every field of study imaginable — and beyond imagining.

Originally, the interaction of IS-BE illusions or inventions created the very fabric of the physical universe — the microcosm and the macrocosm. Every single particle of the universe has been imagined and brought into existence by an IS-BE. Everything created from an idea — a thought with no weight or size or location in space.

Every speck of dust in space, from the size of the tiniest subatomic particle, to the size of a sun or a magelantic cloud the size of many galaxies, was created from the nothingness of a thought.  Even the tiniest, individual cells were contrived and coordinated to enable a microbial entity to sense, and navigate through infinitesimally small spaces.  These also came from an idea thought up by an IS-BE.

You, and every IS-BE on Earth, have participated in the creation of this universe.  Even though you are now confined to a fragile body made of flesh; you live for only 65 short rotations of your planet around a star; you have been given overwhelming electric shock treatments to wipe out your memory; you must learn everything all over again each lifetime; in spite of all these circumstances, you are who you are and will always be.  And, deep down, you still know that you are and what you know.  You are still the essence of you.

How else can one understand the child prodigy? An IS-BE who plays concertos on a piano at three years of age, without formal training?  Impossible, if they did not simply remember what they have already learned from thousands of lives spent in front of a keyboard in times untold, or on planets far away.  They may not know how they know.  They just know.

Humankind has developed more technology in the past 100 years than in the previous 2,000 years.  Why?  The answer is simple:  the influence of the “Old Empire” over the mind and over the affairs of Mankind has been diminished by The Domain.

A renaissance [v] (Footnote) of invention on Earth began in 1,250 AD with the destruction of the “Old Empire” space fleet in the solar system.  During the next 500 years, Earth may have the potential to regain autonomy and independence, but only to the degree that humankind can apply the concentrated genius of the IS-BEs on Earth to solve the amnesia problem.

However, on a cautionary note, the inventive potential of the IS-BEs who have been exiled to this planet is severely compromised by the criminal elements of the Earth population.  Specifically, politicians, war-mongers and irresponsible physicists who create  unlimited weapons such as nuclear bombs, chemicals, diseases and social chaos.  These have the potential to extinguish all life forms on Earth, forever.”

— Excerpted from the Top Secret transcripts published in the book ALIEN INTERVIEW, edited by Lawrence R. Spencer


[i] “…Johannes Gutenberg…”

“Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. 1400 – February 3, 1468) was a German goldsmith and printer, who is credited with inventing movable type printing in Europe (c. 1439) and mechanical printing globally. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible, also known as the 42-line bible, has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, the printing technologies spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe much faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, it was a major catalyst for the later scientific revolution. Gutenberg is thought to have said: “Give me 26 soldiers of lead and I shall conquer the world.”

Printing was also a factor in the Reformation: Martin Luther found that the 95 Theses, which he posted on the door of his church, were printed and circulated widely; subsequently he also issued broadsheets outlining his anti-indulgences position (ironically, indulgences were one of the first items Gutenberg had printed). The broadsheet evolved into newspapers and defined the mass media we know today.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[ii] “…George Washington Carver…”

“George Washington Carver (July 12, 1864 – January 5, 1943) was an American botanical researcher and agronomy educator who worked in agricultural extension at the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, teaching former slaves farming techniques for self-sufficiency.

George Washington Carver reputedly discovered three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more uses for soybeans, pecans and sweet potatoes. Among the listed items that he suggested to southern farmers to help them economically were adhesives, axle grease, bleach, buttermilk, chili sauce, fuel briquettes, ink, instant coffee, linoleum, mayonnaise, meat tenderizer, metal polish, paper, plastic, pavement, shaving cream, shoe polish, synthetic rubber, talcum powder and wood stain. Three patents (one for cosmetics, and two for paints and stains) were issued to George Washington Carver in the years 1925 to 1927; however, they were not commercially successful in the end. Aside from these patents and some recipes for food, he left no formulas or procedures for making his products. He did not keep a laboratory notebook.

Carver’s most important accomplishments were in areas other than industrial products from peanuts, including agricultural extension education, improvement of racial relations, mentoring children, poetry, painting, religion, advocacy of sustainable agriculture and appreciation of plants and nature. He served as a valuable role model for African-Americans and an example of the importance of hard work, a positive attitude and a good education. His humility, humanitarianism, good nature, frugality and lack of economic materialism have also been widely admired.

One of his most important roles was that the fame of his achievements and many talents undermined the widespread stereotype of the time that the black race was intellectually inferior to the white race. In 1941, “Time” magazine dubbed him a “Black Leonardo”.

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iii] “…Jonas Salk…”

“Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American biologist and physician best known for the research and development of the first effective polio vaccine.

While being interviewed by Edward R. Murrow on “See It Now” in 1955, Salk was asked: “Who owns the patent on this vaccine?” Surprised by the question’s assumption of the requirement of a profit-motive for his creation, he responded: “There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iv] “…Richard Trevithick…”

Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall – died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was an English inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[v] “… Renaissance…”

The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning “rebirth”; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- “again” and nascere “be born”) was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of western Europe. It encompassed a revival of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and educational reform. The Renaissance saw developments in most intellectual pursuits, but is perhaps best known for its artistic aspect and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who have inspired the term “Renaissance men”.

However,  it was not until the nineteenth century that the French word Renaissance achieved popularity in describing the cultural movement that began in the late 13th century”  (1200 AD – 1300 AD).

The term was first used retrospectively by the Italian artist and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) in his book The Lives of the Artists (published 1550). In the book Vasari was attempting to define what he described as a break with the barbarities of gothic art: the arts had fallen into decay with the collapse of the Roman Empire and only the Tuscan artists, beginning with Cimabue (1240-1301) and Giotto (1267-1337) began to reverse this decline in the arts. According to Vasari, antique art was central to the rebirth of Italian art.

During the 12th century in Europe, there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions and innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production and economic growth. In less than a century, there were more inventions developed and applied usefully than in the previous thousand years of human history all over the globe. The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption or invention of printing, gunpowder, spectacles, a better clock, the astrolabe, and greatly improved ships. The latter two advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration.

Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in The Measure of Reality : Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600 and other major historians of technology have also noted it.

  • The earliest written record of a windmill is from Yorkshire, England, dated 1185.
  • Paper manufacture began in Italy around 1270.
  • The spinning wheel was brought to Europe (probably from India) in the 13th century.
  • The magnetic compass aided navigation, first reaching Europe some time in the late 12th century.
  • Eyeglasses were invented in Italy in the late 1280s.
  • The astrolabe returned to Europe via Islamic Spain.
  • Leonardo of Pisa introduces Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe with his book Liber Abaci in 1202.
  • The West’s oldest known depiction of a stern-mounted rudder can be found on church carvings dating to around 1180.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

Originally posted 2011-02-25 10:56:12. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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