Category Archives: amnesia

THEY LIVE

They Live is a 1988 American science fiction satirical film written and directed by John Carpenter. The film stars Roddy Piper, Keith David, and Meg Foster. It follows a nameless drifter referred to as “Nada”, who discovers the ruling class are in fact aliens concealing their appearance and manipulating people to spend money, breed and accept the status quo with subliminal messages in mass media.  Many of the ideas in this film are clarified and expanded upon in the book ALIEN INTERVIEW.  (see below)

“I want you to get these documents published. I want IS-BEs on Earth to have a chance to find out what is really happening on Earth.

Most people will not believe any of it, I’m sure. It seems too incredible. No “reasonable” person would ever believe a word of it. However, it only seems “incredible” to an IS-BE whose memory has been erased and replaced with false information inside the electronically controlled illusion of a prison planet. We must not allow the apparent incredibility of our situation prevent us from confronting the reality of it.

ALIEN INTERVIEWFrankly, “reasons” have nothing to do with reality. There are no reasons. Things are what they are. If we don’t face the facts of our situation, we’re going to stay under the thumb of the “Old Empire” forever! The biggest weapon the “Old Empire” has left now is our ignorance of what they are doing to all the IS-BEs on Earth. Disbelief and secrecy are the most effective weapons they have!

The government agencies that classified the enclosed transcripts as “TOP SECRET” are run by IS-BEs who are nothing more than mindless automatons covertly ordered about through hypnotic commands given by the “Old Empire” prison operators. They are the unknowing slaves of unseen slave masters — and all the more enslaved by their willingness to be slaves.

Most of the IS-BEs on Earth are good, honest, able beings: artists, managers, geniuses, free thinkers and revolutionaries who have harmed no one, really. They are no threat to anyone except the criminals who have imprisoned them.

They must find out about the “Old Empire” amnesia and hypnosis operation. They must remember their own past lives. The only way this will ever happen is to communicate, coordinate and fight back. We have to tell other people and they have to discuss it openly with each other. Communication is the only effective weapon against secrecy and oppression.

This is why I am asking you to tell this story. Please share these transcripts with as many people as you can. If the people of Earth are told what is really going on here, perhaps they will begin to remember who they are, and where they came from.”

— from a letter written by Nurse Matilda MacElroy,  published in the book ALIEN INTERVIEW

Originally posted 2014-08-24 00:21:37. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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DOMAIN SEARCH PARTY

TreeofLife_detail“559 BCE —

The Commanding Officer of The Domain Battalion who was lost in 5,965 BCE was detected and located by a search party sent to Earth from The Domain Expeditionary Force. He was incarnated as Cyrus II of Persia during this time. [i] (Footnote)

A unique system of organization was used by Cyrus II [ii] (Footnote) and the members of that Battalion who followed him from India through his progression of human lives on Earth.  In part, it enabled them to build the largest empire in the history of the Earth to that date.

The Domain Search Party who located him traveled around the Earth searching for the lost Battalion for several thousand years.  The party consisted of 900 officers of The Domain, divided into teams of 300 each.  One team searched the land, another team search the oceans and the third team searched the space surrounding Earth.  There are many reports made in various human civilizations concerning their activities, which humans did not understand, of course.

The Domain Search Party devised a wide variety of electronic detection devices needed to track the electronic signature or wavelength of each of the missing members of the Battalion.  Some were used in space, others on land, and special devices were invented to detect IS-BEs under water.

One of these electronic detection devices is referred to as a “tree of life”. [iii] (Footnote)

The device is literally a tool designed to detect the presence of life, which is an IS-BE.  This was a large electronic screen generator designed to permeate wide areas.  To the ancient humans on Earth it resembled a sort of tree, since is consists of an interwoven lattice of electronic field generators and receivers.  The electronic field detects the presence of IS-BEs, whether the IS-BE is occupying a body, or if they are outside a body.

A portable version of this detection device was carried by each of the members of The Domain Search Party.  Stone carvings in Sumeria show winged beings using pinecone-shaped instruments to scan the bodies of human beings.  They are also shown carrying the power unit for the scanner which are depicted as stylized baskets or water buckets, being carried by eagle-headed, winged beings. [iv] (Footnote)

Members of the aerial unit of The Domain Search Party, led by Ahura Mazda, were often called  “winged gods” in human interpretations. Throughout the Persian civilization there are a great many stone relief carvings that depict winged space craft, that they called a “faravahar”. [v] (Footnote)

Members of the Aquatic Unit of The Domain Search Party were called “Oannes” by local humans. [vi] (Footnote) Stone carvings of the so-called Oannes are shown wearing silver diving suits.  They lived in the sea and appeared to the human population to be men dressed to look like fish.  Some members of the lost Battalion were found in the oceans inhabiting the bodies of dolphins or whales. [vii] (Footnote)

On land, The Domain Search Party members were referred to as “Annunaki” [viii] (Footnote) by the Sumerians, and “Nephilim”, in the Bible.  Of course, their true mission and activities were never disclosed to homo sapiens.  Their activities have been purposefully disguised.  Therefore, the human stories and legends about the Annunaki, and the other members of The Domain Search Party have not been understood and were badly misinterpreted.

In the absence of complete and accurate data, anyone observing a phenomenon will assume or hypothesize explanations in an attempt to make sense of the data.  Therefore, although mythology and history may be based on factual events, they are likewise full of misunderstood and misinterpreted evaluations of the data, and embellished with assumptions, theories and hypotheses which are false.

The space unit of The Domain Expeditionary Force are shown flying in a “Winged-Disc”. [ix] (Footnote) This is an allusion to the spiritual power of the IS-BEs, as well as to the space craft used by The Domain Search Party.

The Commander of the lost Battalion, as Cyrus II, was an IS-BE who was regarded as a messiah on Earth by both the Jews, and the Muslims.  In less than 50 years he established a highly ethical, and humanitarian philosophy which pervaded all of Western Civilization.” [x] (Footnote)

— Airl: Officer, Pilot and Engineer of The Domain Expeditionary Force — Excerpted from the Official Transcript of the U.S. Army Air Force, Roswell Army Air Field, 509th Bomb Group, SUBJECT: ALIEN INTERVIEW, 27. 7. 1947, 1st Session

______________________________________________________

FOOTNOTES:

[i] “…Cyrus II of Persia…”

Cyrus the Great (c. 590 BC or 576 — August 529 BC or 530 BC), also known as Cyrus II of Persia and Cyrus the Elder, was a Persian emperor. He was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. The empire expanded under his rule, eventually conquering most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia, from Egypt and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, to create the largest state the world had yet seen.

During his twenty-nine year reign, Cyrus fought against some of the greatest states of his time, including the Median Empire, the Lydian Empire, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in August 530 BC. He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt during his short rule.

Beyond his nation, Cyrus left a lasting legacy on Jewish religion (through his Edict of Restoration), politics, and military strategy, as well as on both Eastern and Western civilization.

The only known example of his religious policy is his treatment of the Jews in Babylon. The Bible records that a remnant of the Jewish population returned to the Promised Land from Babylon, following an edict from Cyrus to rebuild the temple. This edict is fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra. As a result of Cyrus’ policies, the Jews honored him as a dignified and righteous king. He is the only Gentile to be designated as a messiah, a divinely-appointed king, in the Tanakh (Isaiah 45:1-6).

Some contemporary Muslim scholars have suggested that the Qur’anic figure of Dhul-Qarnayn is Cyrus the Great. This theory was proposed by Sunni scholar Abul Kalam Azad and endorsed by Shi’a scholars Allameh Tabatabaei, in his Tafsir al-Mizan and Makarem Shirazi and Sunni scholar Abul Ala Maududi.

During his reign, Cyrus maintained control over a vast region of conquered kingdoms, achieved partly through retaining and expanding Median satrapies. Cyrus’ conquests began a new era in the age of empire building, where a vast superstate, comprising many dozens of countries, races, religions, and languages, were ruled under a single administration headed by a central government.

In 1992, he was ranked #87 on Michael H. Hart‘s list of the most influential figures in history. On December 10, 2003, in her acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi evoked Cyrus, saying:

“I am an Iranian, a descendant of Cyrus the Great. This emperor proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2,500 years ago that he ‘would not reign over the people if they did not wish it.’ He promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus the Great should be studied in the history of human rights.”

Many of the forefathers of the United States of America sought inspiration from Cyrus the Great through works such as Cyropaedia. Thomas Jefferson, for example, had two personal copies of the book, “which was a mandatory read for statesmen alongside Machiavelli’s The Prince.”

In a recent segment of ABC’s Nightline with Ted Koppel, Ted Koppel mentioned Cyrus the Great, when he was talking about the new documentary film being made in his honor, and had this to say of him:

“Cyrus the Great is genuinely one of history’s towering figures. America’s own founders such as Thomas Jefferson were influenced by Cyrus the Great in the field of Human Rights.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[ii] “… unique system of organization used by Cyrus II…”

“During his reign, Cyrus maintained control over a vast region of conquered kingdoms, achieved partly through retaining and expanding Median satrapies. Further organization of newly conquered territories into provinces ruled by vassal kings called satraps, was continued by Cyrus’ successor Darius the Great. Cyrus’ empire demanded only tribute and conscripts from many parts of the realm.

Cyrus was distinguished equally as a statesman and as a soldier. By pursuing a policy of generosity instead of repression, and by favoring local religions, he was able to make his newly conquered subjects into enthusiastic supporters. Due in part to the political infrastructure he created, the Achaemenid empire endured long after his demise.

The rise of Persia under Cyrus’s rule had a profound impact on the course of world history. Persian philosophy, literature and religion all played dominant roles in world events for the next millennia. Despite the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century CE by the Islamic Caliphate (Arab Empire), Persia continued to exercise enormous influence in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iii] “… tree of life….”

“Trees of life appear in folklore, culture and fiction, often relating to immortality. These often hold cultural and religious significance to the peoples for whom they appear.

The Sumerian (or Persian) Tree of Life was represented by a series of nodes and criss-crossing lines. It was an important religious symbol among these peoples, often attended to by Eagle Headed Gods & Priests, or the King himself.

  • In Chinese mythology a carving of a Tree of Life depicts a phoenix and a dragon – in Chinese mythology the dragon often represents immortality. There is also the Taoist story of a tree that produces a peach every three thousand years. The one who eats the fruit receives immortality.
  • An archaeological discovery in the 1990s was of a sacrificial pit at Sanxingdui in Sechuan, China. Dating from about 1200 BCE, it contained 3 bronze trees, one of them 4 meters high. At the base was a dragon, and fruit hanging from the lower branches. At the top is a strange bird-like (phoenix) creature with claws. Also from Sechuan, from the late Han dynasty (c 25 – 220 CE) is another tree of life. The ceramic base is guarded by a horned beast with wings. The leaves of the tree are coins and people.
  • In Egyptian mythology, in the Ennead system of Heliopolis, the first couple, apart from Shu & Tefnut (moisture & dryness) and Geb & Nuit (earth & sky), are Isis & Osiris. They were said to have emerged from the acacia tree of Saosis, which the Egyptians considered the tree of life, referring to it as the “tree in which life and death are enclosed”.
  • The Egyptian’s Holy Sycamore also stood on the threshold of life and death, connecting the two worlds.
  • In Germanic paganism, trees played a prominent role, appearing in various aspects of surviving texts and possibly in the name of gods.
  • The tree of life appears in Norse religion as Yggdrasil, the world tree, a massive tree with extensive lore surrounding it. Perhaps related to the Yggdrasil, accounts have survived of Germanic Tribes honouring sacred trees within their societies.
  • In Norse Mythology it is the golden apples from Iðunn’s tree that provides immortality for the gods.
  • The Tree of Life is mentioned in the Books of Genesis, in which it has the potential to grant immortality to Adam and Eve. (However, it is not immediately obvious, nor is it universally accepted, that the Book of Genesis account and the Book of Revelation account speak of the same Tree of Life.)
  • A Tree of Life, in the form of ten interconnected nodes, is an important part of the Kabbalah. As such, it resembles the ten Sephirot.
  • The Tree of Life appears in the Book of Mormon in a revelation to Lehi (see 1 Nephi 8:10-12). It is symbolic of the love of God (see 1 Nephi 11:21-23), and sometimes understood as salvation and post-mortal existence.
  • Etz Chaim, Hebrew for “Tree of Life”, is a common term used in Judaism. The expression, found in the Book of Proverbs, is figuratively applied to the Torah itself.
  • Among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, the concept of “world trees” is a prevalent motif in Mesoamerican mythical cosmologies and iconography. World trees embodied the four cardinal directions, which represented also the fourfold nature of a central world tree, a symbolic axis mundi connecting the planes of the Underworld and the sky with that of the terrestrial world.
  • Depictions of world trees, both in their directional and central aspects, are found in the art and mythological traditions of cultures such as the Maya, Aztec, Izapan, Mixtec, Olmec, and others, dating to at least the Mid/Late Formative periods of Mesoamerican chronology.
  • Directional world trees are also associated with the four Year bearers in Mesoamerican calendars, and the directional colors and deities.
  • World trees are frequently depicted with birds in their branches, and their roots extending into earth or water (sometimes atop a “water-monster”, symbolic of the underworld).
  • The central world tree has also been interpreted as a representation of the band of the Milky Way. Fragment of a bronze helmet from Urartu, with the “Tree of Life” depicted.
  • In ancient Armrenia around 13th to 6th century BC, the Tree of Life was a religious symbol, drawn onto the exterior walls of fortresses and carved on the armour of warriors. The branches of the tree were equally divided on the right and left sides of the stem, with each branch having one leaf, and one leaf on the apex of the tree. Servants (some winged) stood on each side of the tree with one of their hands up as if they are taking care of it. This tree can be found on numerous Urartu artifacts, such as paintings on the walls of the Erebuni fortress in Yerevan, Armenia.
  • The symbolism of the tree is mentioned in the 135th hymn of the 10th book of Rig-Veda, and in the 15th chapter of Bhagavad-gita (1-4).
  • In the Japanese religion of Shinto, trees were marked with sacred paper symbolizing lightning bolts, as trees were thought to be sacred. This was propagated by the fact that after they passed (died), ancestors and animals were often portrayed as branches on the tree.
  • The Book of One Thousand and One Nights has a story, ‘The Tale of Buluqiya’, in which the hero searches for immortality and finds a paradise with jewel-encrusted trees. Nearby is a Fountain of Youth guarded by Al-Khidr. Unable to defeat the guard, Buluqiya has to return empty-handed.
  • The Epic of Gilgamesh is a similar quest for immortality. In Mesopotamian mythology, Etana searches for a ‘plant of birth’ to provide him with a son. This has a solid provenance of antiquity, being found in cylinder seals from Akkad (2390 – 2249 BCE).
  • One of the earliest forms of ancient Greek religion has its origins associated with tree cults.

In mystical traditions of world religions, sacred texts are read for metaphorical content concerning the relationship between states of mind and the external experience of reality. As such, the tree is a manifestation/causal symbol – the Tree of Life representing the coveted state of eternal aliveness or fulfillment, not immortality of the body or soul. In such a state, physical death (which cannot be overcome) is nevertheless a choice, and direct experience of the perfect goodness/divine reality/god is not only possible, but ever present.

Once the ego (surface consciousness) experiences shame, having been tempted to absorb or believe in duality (such as eating of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil), we are protected from living eternally in that limiting, fallen, experience by the cherubim guarding the gate of return to paradise. The cherubim are symbolic of the perfect knowledge of self or true nature, with the power of purification and return to being.

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iv] “… the carvings show cone-shaped instruments, and electronic detection devices which are stylized as baskets or water buckets, being carried by eagle headed, winged beings….”

EDITOR’S NOTE: Excellent photographs of these can be viewed at the following website:

http://www.crystalinks.com/godswaterbuckets.html

[v] “… faravahar…”

“The faravahar or farohar (transliteration varies) is one of the best-known symbols of Zoroastrianism.

The winged disc has a long history in the art and culture of the ancient Near and Middle East. Historically, the symbol is influenced by the “winged sun” hieroglyph appearing on Bronze Age royal seals. While the symbol is currently thought to represent a Fravashi (c. a guardian angel) and from which it derives its name, what it represented in the minds of those who adapted it from earlier Mesopotamian and Egyptian reliefs is unclear. Because the symbol first appears on royal inscriptions, it is also thought to represent the ‘Divine Royal Glory’ (khvarenah), or the Fravashi of the king, or represented the divine mandate that was the foundation of a king’s authority.

This relationship between the name of the symbol and the class of divine entities reflects the current belief that the symbol represents a Fravashi. However, there is no physical description of the Fravashis in the Avesta and in Avestan the entities are grammatically feminine.

Prior to the reign of Darius I, the symbol did not have a human form above the wings. In present-day Zoroastrianism, the faravahar is said to be a reminder of one’s purpose in life, which is to live in such a way that the soul progresses towards frasho-kereti, or union with Ahura Mazda.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[vi] “…Oannes…”

“Oannes was the name given by the Babylonian writer Berossus in the 3rd century BC to a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom. Berossus describes Oannes as having the body of a fish but underneath the figure of a man. He is described as dwelling in the Persian Gulf, and rising out of the waters in the daytime and furnishing mankind instruction in writing, the arts and the various sciences.

Once thought to be based on the ancient Babylonian god Ea, it is now known that Oannes is in fact based on Uan (Adapa) – the first of the seven antediluvian sages or Abgallu (in Sumerian Ab=water, Gal=Great, Lu=man), who were sent by Ea to deliver the arts of civilization to mankind in ancient Sumerian mythology, at Eridu, the oldest city of Sumer.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[vii] “Some members of the lost Battalion have been found in the oceans inhabiting the bodies of dolphins or whales.”

Dolphins have long played a role in human culture. Dolphins are common in Greek mythology and there are many coins from the time which feature a man or boy riding on the back of a dolphin. The Ancient Greeks treated them with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage. Dolphins also seem to have been important to the Minoans, judging by artistic evidence from the ruined palace at Knossos. In Hindu mythology, the Ganges River Dolphin is associated with Ganga, the deity of the Ganges river.

 

Dolphins are often regarded as one of Earth’s most intelligent animals, though it is hard to say just how intelligent dolphins are, as comparisons of species’ relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition. Furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with large aquatics means that some tests which could yield meaningful results still have not been carried out, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. Dolphin behavior has been studied extensively by humans however, both in captivity and in the wild.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[viii] “… The Anunnaki…”

“The Anunnaki are a group of Sumerian and Akkadian deities related to, and in some cases overlapping with, the Annuna (the ‘Fifty Great Gods’) and the Igigi (minor gods), meaning something to the effect of ‘those of royal blood’ or ‘princely offspring’ or “heaven and earth”.

The Annunaki appear in the Babylonian creation myth, Enuma Elish. In the late version magnifying Marduk, after the creation of mankind, Marduk divides the Anunnaki and assigns them to their proper stations, three hundred in heaven, three hundred on the earth. The Anunnaki were the High Council of the Gods, and Anu’s companions. They were distributed through the Earth and the Underworld.

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[ix] “… flying on a “Winged-Disc”. “

“The winged sun is a symbol associated with divinity, royalty and power in the Ancient Near East (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia). The symbol has also been found in the records of ancient cultures residing in various regions of South America as well as Australia.

In Ancient Egypt, the symbol is attested from the Old Kingdom (Sneferu, 26th century BC), often flanked on either side with a uraeus. In early Egyptian religion, the symbol Behedeti represented Horus of Edfu, later identified with Ra-Harachte. It is sometimes depicted on the neck of Apis, the bull of Ptah. As time passed (according to interpretation) all of the subordinated gods of Egypt were considered to be aspects of the sun god, including e.g. Khepri.

From roughly 2000 BC, the symbol spread to the Levant and to Mesopotamia. It appears in reliefs with Assyrian rulers and in Hieroglyphic Anatolian as a symbol for royalty, transcribed as literally, “his own self, the Sun”.  From ca. the 8th century BC, it appears on Hebrew seals, by now as a generic symbol for “power”. The symbol evolved into the Faravahar (the “visual aspect of Ahura Mazda”) in Zoroastrian Persia.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[x] “… he established a high standard of ethical, and humanitarian philosophy…”

“Up to the time of the conquest of Media by Cyrus the Great, Median emperors ruled their conquered territories as provinces, through client kings and governors. One of the keys to the Achaemenid success (as with most enduring great empires) was their open attitude to the culture and religion of the conquered people, so ironically the Persian culture was the one most affected as the Great King endeavored to melt elements from all his subjects into a new imperial style.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

Originally posted 2015-01-24 00:18:26. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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RENNAISSANCE

The Renaissance

“Humankind has developed more technology in the past 100 years than in the previous 2,000 years.  Why?  The answer is simple:  the influence of the “Old Empire” over the mind and over the affairs of Mankind has been diminished by The Domain.

A renaissance [i] (Footnote) of invention on Earth began in 1,250 AD with the destruction of the “Old Empire” space fleet in the solar system.  During the next 500 years, Earth may have the potential to regain autonomy and independence, but only to the degree that humankind can apply the concentrated genius of the IS-BEs on Earth to solve the amnesia problem.

However, on a cautionary note, the inventive potential of the IS-BEs who have been exiled to this planet is severely compromised by the criminal elements of the Earth population.  Specifically, politicians, war-mongers and irresponsible physicists who create  unlimited weapons such as nuclear bombs, chemicals, diseases and social chaos.  These have the potential to extinguish all life forms on Earth, forever.

Even the relatively small explosions that were tested and used in the past two years on Earth have the potential to destroy all of life, if deployed in sufficient quantities. Larger weapons could consume all of the oxygen in the global atmosphere in a single explosion! [ii] (Footnote)

Therefore, the most fundamental problems that must be solved in order to ensure that Earth will not be destroyed by technology, are social and humanitarian problems.  The greatest scientific minds of Earth, in spite of mathematical or mechanical genius, have never addressed these problems. 

Therefore, do not look to scientists to save Earth or the future of humanity.  Any so-called “science” that is solely based on the paradigm [iii] (Footnote) that existence is composed only of energy and objects moving through space is not a science.  Such beings utterly ignore the creative spark originated by an individual IS-BE and collective work of the IS-BEs who continually create the physical universe and all universes.  Every science will remain relatively ineffective or destructive to the degree that it omits or devaluates the relative importance of the spiritual spark that ignites all of creation and life.”

– Excerpted from the Top Secret transcripts published in the book ALIEN INTERVIEW, edited by Lawrence R. Spencer


FOOTNOTES:

[i] “… Renaissance…”

The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning “rebirth”; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- “again” and nascere “be born”) was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of western Europe. It encompassed a revival of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and educational reform. The Renaissance saw developments in most intellectual pursuits, but is perhaps best known for its artistic aspect and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who have inspired the term “Renaissance men”.

However,  it was not until the nineteenth century that the French word Renaissance achieved popularity in describing the cultural movement that began in the late 13th century“  (1200 AD – 1300 AD).

The term was first used retrospectively by the Italian artist and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) in his book The Lives of the Artists (published 1550). In the book Vasari was attempting to define what he described as a break with the barbarities of gothic art: the arts had fallen into decay with the collapse of the Roman Empire and only the Tuscan artists, beginning with Cimabue (1240-1301) and Giotto (1267-1337began to reverse this decline in the arts. According to Vasari, antique art was central to the rebirth of Italian art.

During the 12th century in Europe, there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions and innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production and economic growth. In less than a century, there were more inventions developed and applied usefully than in the previous thousand years of human history all over the globe. The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption or invention of printing, gunpowder, spectacles, a better clock, the astrolabe, and greatly improved ships. The latter two advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration.

Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in The Measure of Reality : Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600 and other major historians of technology have also noted it.

  • The earliest written record of a windmill is from Yorkshire, England, dated 1185.
  • Paper manufacture began in Italy around 1270.
  • The spinning wheel was brought to Europe (probably from India) in the 13th century.
  • The magnetic compass aided navigation, first reaching Europe some time in the late 12th century.
  • Eyeglasses were invented in Italy in the late 1280s.
  • The astrolabe returned to Europe via Islamic Spain.
  • Leonardo of Pisa introduces Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe with his book Liber Abaci in 1202.
  • The West’s oldest known depiction of a stern-mounted rudder can be found on church carvings dating to around 1180.”

– Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[ii] “… explosions that were tested and used in the past two years on Earth have the potential to destroy all of life…”

“A doomsday device is a hypothetical construction — usually a weapon — which could destroy all life on the Earth, or destroy the Earth itself (bringing “doomsday”, a term used for the end of planet Earth).

Doomsday devices have been present in literature and art especially in the 20th century, when advances in science and technology allowed humans to imagine a definite and plausible way of actively destroying the world or all life on it (or at least human life). Many classics in the genre of science fiction take up the theme in this respect, especially The Purple Cloud (1901) by M. P. Shiel in which the accidental release of a gas kills all people on the planet.

After the advent of nuclear weapons, especially hydrogen bombs, they have usually been the dominant components of fictional doomsday devices. RAND strategist Herman Kahn proposed a “Doomsday Machine” in the 1950s which would consist of a computer linked to a stockpile of hydrogen bombs, programmed to detonate them all and bathe the planet in nuclear fallout at the signal of an impending nuclear attack from another nation. Such a scheme, fictional as it was, epitomized for many the extremes of the suicidal logic behind the strategy of mutually assured destruction, and it was famously parodied in the Stanley Kubrick film from 1964, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb. It is also a main topic of the movie Beneath the Planet of the Apes, in parallel with the species extermination theme. Most such models either rely on the fact that hydrogen bombs can be made arbitrarily large (see Teller-Ulam design) or that they can be “salted” with materials designed to create long-lasting and hazardous fallout (e.g.; a cobalt bomb).

There are many unconfirmed, anecdotal reports of a Soviet doomsday device involving a 200-megaton hydrogen bomb sheathed in (or, alternately, “salted” with) a highly radioactive material, usually said to be cobalt, of sufficient quantity to saturate the earth’s atmosphere with deadly fallout should the device be detonated. Details regarding this device vary according to the source, but enough similarities in the dozens of different stories exist to suggest at least some basis in truth. According to various sources, at some point between 1967 and 1985, the device was designed but never constructed; built but never activated; built and activated, but dismantled at the end of the cold war; or designed and constructed in such a manner that it can never be de-activated, and is still in existence today. Tales of its location and means of operation are equally diverse: it was in an underground bunker west of Moscow, Siberia, the Ukraine, etc.; it was installed on a special rocket booster that would deliver it to the upper atmosphere upon activation; it was actually a series of bombs placed at intervals along the western border of the USSR; it was to be detonated upon command from the Kremlin, automatically by a special computer, a seismic trigger, or upon detection of incoming missiles. Many more versions exist, such as one with the device being permanently installed in the hold of an unmarked tramp freighter, steaming randomly from port to port in the North Sea.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

[iii]  “… paradigm…”

“Historian of science Thomas Kuhn gave this word its contemporary meaning when he adopted it to refer to the set of practices that define a scientific discipline during a particular period of time. Kuhn himself came to prefer the terms exemplar and normal science, which have more exact philosophical meanings. However, in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn defines a scientific paradigm as:

  • what is to be observed and scrutinized
  • the kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject
  • how these questions are to be structured
  • how the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted

Alternatively, the Oxford English Dictionary defines paradigm as “a pattern or model, an exemplar.”

— Reference:  Wikipedia.org

Originally posted 2013-04-02 23:16:57. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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