[i] …”space opera” civilization”…
“It was not until the 1920s that the space opera proper appeared in the pulp magazines Weird Tales and Amazing Stories. Unlike earlier stories of space adventure, which either related the invasion of Earth by extraterrestrials, or concentrated on the invention of a space vehicle by a genius inventor, pure space opera simply took space travel for granted (usually by setting the story in the far future), skipped the preliminaries, and launched straight into tales of derring-do among the stars.
The first stories of this type were J. Schlossel’s The Second Swarm (Spring 1928) in Amazing Stories Quarterly and Edmond Hamilton’s Crashing Suns (August-September 1928) and The Star Stealers (February 1929) in Weird Tales . Similar stories by other writers followed through 1929 and 1930; by 1931 the space opera was well-established as a dominant sub-genre of science fiction.
The transition from the older space-voyage story to the space opera can be seen in the works of E. E. “Doc” Smith. His first published work, The Skylark of Space (August-October 1928, Amazing Stories), merges the traditional tale of a scientist inventing a space-drive with planetary romance in the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs; but by the time of the sequel, Skylark Three (August-October 1930, Amazing Stories) which introduces the space faring race of the Fenachrone, Smith had moved closer to a space opera mode.
Space opera in its most familiar form was a product of 1930s-40s pulp magazines. Like early science fiction in general, space opera borrowed much of its style from established adventure, crime, and thriller genres. Notable influences included stories that described adventures on exotic or uncivilized frontiers, e.g. the American West, Africa, or the Orient. The imagined future of space opera included immense space liners, intrepid explorers of unknown worlds, pirates of the space ways, and tough but incorruptible space police.
E. E. “Doc” Smith’s later Lensman Series and the works of Edmond Hamilton, John W. Campbell, and Jack Williamson in the 1930s and 1940s were popular with readers and much imitated by other writers. By the early 1940s, the repetitiousness and extravagance of some of these stories led to objections from some fans.”
— Reference: Wikipedia.org
[iii] “…1493 AD — “The Requirement”…
“The Requirement was published as a papal “bull”, issued by the infamous Pope Alexander VI, (Rodrigo Borgia), Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the Popes of the Renaissance.
Because of the pre-existence of millions of people living in the Americas in 1493, the King of Spain, had a small twinge of fear at the prospect that God might become angry at him for all the murder, theft and mayhem he endorsed in the New World. So, he persuaded Pope Alexander VI to sanction an official proclamation intended to dissolve the stain of bloody culpability from the King’s own immortal soul. This document, called “The Requirement”, was supposed to be read, whether translated into the native language of the inhabitants or not, to the citizens of every foreign nation just prior to their conquest. The gist of the proclamation was to inform the soon to be vanquished that their lands were being “donated” to Spain.
The Requirement read, in part:
“I, (name of the Conquistador), servant of the high and mighty Kings of Castile and Leon, conquerors of barbarian peoples, and being their messenger and Captain, hereby notify and inform you … that God Our Lord, One and Eternal, created Heaven and Earth and a man and a woman from whom you and I and all the multitude begotten from these over the past five thousand and some years since the world was made … And so I request and require you … to recognize the Church as your Mistress and as Governess of the World and Universe, and the High Priest, called the Pope, in Her name, and His Majesty (the King of Spain) in Her place, as Ruler and Lord King … And if you do not do this … with the help of God I shall come mightily against you, and I shall make war on you everywhere and in every way that I can, and I shall subject you to the yoke and obedience of the Church and His Majesty, and I shall seize your women and children, and I shall make them slaves, to sell and dispose of as His Majesty commands, and I shall do all the evil and damage to you that I am able. And I insist that the deaths and destruction that result from this will be your fault.”
One of the first to hear The Requirement were the chiefs of the Maya, whose scale of time for the creation of life on Earth did not begin a mere 5,000 years earlier, as suggested by the Pope, rather the Mayan measured original creation in millions of years by the astronomical calendars they kept, which tracked the solar year accurately to within a few seconds a year. Their comment upon hearing The Requirement was, “The Holy Father has indeed been generous with others’ property”.
The Requirement was originally intended as a response to complaints by Spanish clerics that the wars against the Native American peoples were unjust. Comparing them to Spain’s wars against the Moors, the clerics claimed that Muslims had knowledge of Christ and rejected Him, so that waging a Crusade against them was legitimate. In contrast, wars against the Native Americans, who had never come into contact with Christianity were unacceptable. The Requirement was intended as a legal loophole to place the native population in the position of having rejected Christianity. It stated: “We protest that any deaths that result from this [rejection of Christianity] are your fault…”
Many critics of the conquistadors’ policies were appalled by the flippant nature of the Requirement, and the priest, Bartolomeo de Las Casas, said in response to it that he did not know whether to laugh or to cry. While the conquistadors were encouraged to use an interpreter to read the Requirement, this was not absolutely necessary, and in many cases, it was read out to an uncomprehending populace. In some instances, it was read to barren beaches and empty villages, long after the natives had fled, to prisoners after they were captured, or even from the decks of ships once they had just spotted the coast. Nevertheless, for the conquistadors, it provided a religious justification for attacking and enslaving the native population, and because of its potential to enrich the coffers of Spain, the Requirement was not generally questioned.”
— Reference: Wikipedia.org
The net result of the “discovery” of the “New World” which wasn’t really “new” as it had been around as long as any other continent, and had a larger population than Europe, was as follows:
1) hundreds of indigenous cultures were eradicated 2) approximately 100 million people were killed by disease and war brought upon them by “aliens” 3) 100 million people from the Gold Coast of Africa were enslaved, and/ or murdered by Europeans in an effort to replace the “labor force” of slaughtered indigenous population of the Western Hemisphere 4) nearly all of the priceless literature, history, cultural and artistic artifacts of the Western hemisphere were destroyed 5) most of the gold and gems mined over a period of thousands of years by indigenous people were stolen and shipped off the a handful of greedy, idiotic, uneducated, filthy, disease-ridden, superstitious, murderous, thieves in Europe who squandered it on mindless self-indulgences. — The Editor
[iv] “… They are interested primarily in the “low gravity” satellites in this space station which consists mainly of the dark side of the moon…”.
“According to the NASA Astronaut Neil Armstrong the aliens have a base on the Moon and (the aliens) told us in no uncertain terms to get off and stay off the Moon!
Sound far fetched? Milton Cooper, a Naval Intelligence Officer tells us that not only does the Alien Moon Base exist but the U.S. Naval Intelligence Community refers to the Alien Moon Base as “Luna,” that there is a huge mining operation going on there, and that is where the aliens keep their huge mother ships while the trips to Earth are made in smaller “flying saucers”.
LUNA: The Alien base on the far side of the Moon. It was seen and filmed by the Apollo astronauts. A base, a mining operation using very large machines, and the very large alien craft described in sighting reports as mother ships exist there. -Milton Cooper
Did Apollo 11 Encounter UFOs on the Moon? from the Book “Above Top Secret” by Timothy Good.
According to hitherto unconfirmed reports, both Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin saw UFOs shortly after their historic landing on the Moon in Apollo 11 on 21 July 1969. I remember hearing one of the astronauts refer to a “light” in or on a carter during the television transmission, followed by a request from mission control for further information. Nothing more was heard.
According to a former NASA employee Otto Binder, unnamed radio hams with their own VHF receiving facilities that bypassed NASA’s broadcasting outlets picked up the following exchange:
NASA: What’s there? Mission Control calling Apollo 11…
Apollo: These “Babies” are huge, Sir! Enormous! OH MY GOD! You wouldn’t believe it! I’m telling you there are other spacecraft out there, lined up on the far side of the crater edge! They’re on the Moon watching us!
In 1979, Maurice Chatelain, former chief of NASA Communications Systems confirmed that Armstrong had indeed reported seeing two UFOs on the rim of a crater. “The encounter was common knowledge in NASA,” he revealed, “but nobody has talked about it until now.”
Soviet scientists were allegedly the first to confirm the incident. “According to our information, the encounter was reported immediately after the landing of the module,” said Dr. Vladimir Azhazha, a physicist and Professor of Mathematics at Moscow University. “Neil Armstrong relayed the message to Mission Control that two large, mysterious objects were watching them after having landed near the moon module. But his message was never heard by the public-because NASA censored it. “
According to another Soviet scientist, Dr. Aleksandr Kazantsev, Buzz Aldrin took color movie film of the UFOs from inside the module, and continued filming them after he and Armstrong went outside. Dr. Azhazha claims that the UFOs departed minutes after the astronauts came out on to the lunar surface.
Maurice Chatelain also confirmed that Apollo 11’s radio transmissions were interrupted on several occasions in order to hide the news from the public. Before dismissing Chatelain’s sensational claims, it is worth noting his impressive background in the aerospace industry and space program. His first job after moving from France was as an electronics engineer with Convair, specializing in telecommunications, telemetry, and radar. In 1959 he was in charge of an electromagnetic research group, developing new radar and telecommunications systems for Ryan. One of his eleven patents was an automatic flights to the Moon. Later, at North American Aviation, Chatelain was offered the job of designing and building the Apollo communications and data-processing systems.
Chatelain claims that “all Apollo and Gemini flights were followed, both at a distance and sometimes also quite closely, by space vehicles of extraterrestrial origin-flying saucers, or UFOs, if you want to call them by that name. Every time it occurred, the astronauts informed Mission Control, who then ordered absolute silence.” He goes on to say:
“I think that Walter Schirra aboard Mercury 8 was the first of the astronauts to use the code name ‘Santa Claus’ to indicate the presence of flying saucers next to space capsules. However, his announcements were barely noticed by the general public.
It was a little different when James Lovell on board the Apollo 8 command module came out from behind the moon and said for everybody to hear:
‘PLEASE BE INFORMED THAT THERE IS A SANTA CLAUS.’
Even though this happened on Christmas Day 1968, many people sensed a hidden meaning in those words.”
Rumors persist. NASA may well be a civilian agency, but many of its programs are funded by the defense budget and most of the astronauts are subject to military security regulations. Apart from the fact that the National Security Agency screens all films and probably radio communications as well. We have the statements by Otto Binder, Dr. Garry Henderson and Maurice Chatelain that the astronauts were under strict orders not to discuss their sightings. And Gordon Cooper has testified to a United Nations committee that one of the astronauts actually witnessed a UFO on the ground. If there is no secrecy, why has this sighting not been made public?
A certain professor, who wished to remain anonymous, was engaged in a discussion with Neil Armstrong during a NASA symposium.
Professor: What REALLY happened out there with Apollo 11?
Armstrong: It was incredible, of course we had always known there was a possibility, the fact is, we were warned off! (by the Aliens). There was never any question then of a space station or a moon city.
Professor: How do you mean “warned off”?
Armstrong: I can’t go into details, except to say that their ships were far superior to ours both in size and technology – Boy, were they big!… and menacing! No, there is no question of a space station.
Professor: But NASA had other missions after Apollo 11?
Armstrong: Naturally-NASA was committed at that time, and couldn’t risk panic on Earth. But it really was a quick scoop and back again.
Armstrong confirmed that the story was true but refused to go into further detail, beyond admitting that the CIA was behind the cover-up.
Reasonable activity of an alien civilization showed up unexpectedly close to us. We were not ready for it psychologically
We still can come across publications trying to find an answer to the question: Are we alone in the universe? At the same time, presence of reasonable creatures has been detected just close to our home, in the Moon. However, the discovery was immediately classified as secret, as it was so much incredible that even could shake the already existing social principles, reports Russia’s newspaper “Vecherny Volgograd.”
Here is an extract from the official press-release:
“NASA scientists and engineers participating in exploration of Mars and Moon reported results of their discoveries at a briefing at the Washington national press club on March 21, 1996. It was announced for the first time that man-caused structures and objects had been discovered on the Moon.” The scientists spoke rather cautiously and evasively about the functioning objects, with the exception of UFO. They always mentioned the man-caused objects as possible, and pointed out the information was still under study, and official results would be published later.
It was mentioned at the briefing as well that the Soviet Union used to own some photo materials proving presence of reasonable activity on the Moon. And although it wasn’t identified what kind of reasonable activity it was, thousands of photo-and video materials photographed from the Apollo and the Clementine space station demonstrated many parts on the lunar surface where the activity and its traces were perfectly evident. The video films and photos made by U.S. astronauts during the Apollo program were demonstrated at the briefing. And people were extremely surprised why the materials hadn’t been presented to the public earlier. And NASA specialists answered: “It was difficult to forecast the reaction of people to the information that some creatures had been or still were on the Moon. Besides, there were some other reasons to it, which were beyond NASA.”
Specialist for lunar artifacts Richard Hoagland says that NASA is still trying to veil photo materials before they are published in public catalogues and files, they do retouching or partially refocus them while copying. Some investigators, Hoagland is among them, suppose that an extraterrestrial race had used the Moon as a terminal station during their activity on the Earth. The suggestions are confirmed by the legends and myths invented by different nations of our planet.
Ruins of lunar cities stretched along many kilometers, huge transparent domes on massive basements, numerous tunnels and other constructions make scientists reconsider their opinions concerning the lunar problems. How the Moon appeared and principles of its revolving around the Earth still pose a great problem for scientists.
Some partially destroyed objects on the lunar surface can’t be placed among natural geological formations, as they are of complex organization and geometrical structure. In the upper part of Rima hadley, not far from the place where the Apollo-15 had landed, a construction surrounded with a tall D-shaped wall was discovered. As of now, different artifacts have been discovered in 44 regions.
The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Houston Planetary Institute and specialists from the bank of space information are investigating the regions. Mysterious terrace-shaped excavations of the rock have been discovered near the Tiho crater. The concentric hexahedral excavations and the tunnel entry at the terrace side cant be results of natural geological processes; instead, they look very much like open cast mines.
A transparent dome raised above the crater edge was discovered near the crater Copernicus. The dome is unusual as it is glowing white and blue from inside. A rather unusual object, which is unusual indeed even for the Moon, was discovered in the upper part of the Factory area. A disk of about 50 meters in diameter stands on a square basement surrounded with rhombi walls. In the picture, close to the rhombi, we can also see a dark round embrasure in the ground, which resembles an entry in an underground caponier. There is a regular rectangular area between Factory and the crater Copernicus which is 300 meters wide 400 meters long.
Apollo 10 astronauts made a unique picture (AS10-32-4822) of a one-mile long object called Castle, which is hanging at the height of 14 kilometers and casts a distinct shadow on the lunar surface. The object seems to be consisting of several cylindrical units and a large conjunctive unit. Internal porous structure of the Castle is clearly seen in one of the pictures, which makes an impression that some parts of the object are transparent.
As it turned out at the briefing where many NASA scientists were present, when Richard Hoagland had requested originals of the Castle pictures for the second time, no pictures were found there at all. They disappeared even from the list of pictures made by the Apollo 10 crew. Only intermediate pictures of the object were found in the archives, which unfortunately don’t depict the internal structure of the object.
When Apollo-12 crew landed on the lunar surface, they saw that the landing was observed by a half-transparent pyramidal object. It was hanging just several meters above the lunar surface and shimmered with all rainbow colors against the black sky.
In 1969, when the film about astronauts traveling to the Sea of Storms was demonstrated (the astronauts saw the strange objects once again, which were later called “striped glasses”), NASA finally understood what consequences such kind of control could bring. Astronaut Mitchell answered the question about his feelings after a successful return the following: “My neck still aches as I had to constantly turn my head around because we felt we were not alone there. We had no choice but pray.” Johnston, who worked at the Houston Space Center and studied photos and video materials done during the Apollo program, discussed the artifacts with Richard Hoagland and said, the NASA leadership was awfully annoyed with the great number of anomalous, to put it mildly, objects on the Moon. It was even said that piloted flights to the Moon could be banned in the programs network.
Investigators are especially interested in ancient structures resembling partially destroyed cities. The orbital shooting reveals an astonishingly regular geometry of square and rectangular constructions. They resemble our terrestrial cities seen from the height of 5-8 kilometers. A mission control specialist commented on the pictures: “Our guys observed ruins of the Lunar cities, transparent pyramids, domes and God knows what else, which are currently hidden deep inside the NASA safes, and felt like Robinson Crusoe when he suddenly came across prints of human bare feet on the sand of the desert island.” What do geologists and scientists say after studying the pictures of lunar cities and other anomalous objects? They say, such objects can’t be natural formations. “We should admit they are artificial, especially the domes and pyramids.” Reasonable activity of an alien civilization showed up unexpectedly close to us. We were not ready for it psychologically, and some people hardly believe they are true even now.”
Translated by Maria Gousseva (original source = http://english.pravda.ru/main/2002/10/05/37771.html)
— Source: http://www.ufocasebook.com/moon.html
[vi] “… electromagnetic force…”
“In physics, the Lorentz force is the force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. Lorentz introduced this force in 1892. However, the discovery of the Lorentz force was before Lorentz’s time. In particular, it can be seen at equation (77) in Maxwell’s 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. Later, Maxwell listed it as equation “D” of his 1864 paper, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, as one of the eight original Maxwell’s equations. In this paper the equation was written as follows:
A is the magnetic vector potential,
φ is the electrostatic potential,
H is the magnetic field H,
μ is magnetic permeability.
Although this equation is obviously a direct precursor of the modern Lorentz force equation, it actually differs in two respects:
- It does not contain a factor of q, the charge. Maxwell didn’t use the concept of charge. The definition of E used here by Maxwell is unclear. He uses the term electromotive force. He operated from Faraday’s electro-tonic state A, which he considered to be a momentum in his vortex sea. The closest term that we can trace to electric charge in Maxwell’s papers is the density of free electricity, which appears to refer to the density of the aethereal medium of his molecular vortices and that gives rise to the momentum A. Maxwell believed that A was a fundamental quantity from which electromotive force can be derived.
- The equation here contains the information that what we nowadays call E, which today can be expressed in terms of scalar and vector potentials according to
The fact that E can be expressed this way is equivalent to one of the four modern Maxwell’s equations, the Maxwell-Faraday equation.
Despite its historical origins in the original set of eight Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force is no longer considered to be one of “Maxwell’s equations” as the term is currently used (that is, as reformulated by Heaviside). It now sits adjacent to Maxwell’s equations as a separate and essential law.
Significance of the Lorentz force
While the modern Maxwell’s equations describe how electrically charged particles and objects give rise to electric and magnetic fields, the Lorentz force law completes that picture by describing the force acting on a moving point charge q in the presence of electromagnetic fields. The Lorentz force law describes the effect of E and B upon a point charge, but such electromagnetic forces are not the entire picture. Charged particles are possibly coupled to other forces, notably gravity and nuclear forces. Thus, Maxwell’s equations do not stand separate from other physical laws, but are coupled to them via the charge and current densities. The response of a point charge to the Lorentz law is one aspect; the generation of E and B by currents and charges is another.
In real materials the Lorentz force is inadequate to describe the behavior of charged particles, both in principle and as a matter of computation. The charged particles in a material medium both respond to the E and B fields and generate these fields. Complex transport equations must be solved to determine the time and spatial response of charges, for example, the Boltzmann equation or the Fokker–Planck equation or the Navier-Stokes equations. For example, see magnetohydrodynamics, fluid dynamics, electrohydrodynamics, superconductivity, stellar evolution. An entire physical apparatus for dealing with these matters has developed. See for example, Green–Kubo relations and Green’s function (many-body theory).
Although one might suggest that these theories are only approximations intended to deal with large ensembles of “point particles”, perhaps a deeper perspective is that the charge-bearing particles may respond to forces like gravity, or nuclear forces, or boundary conditions.”
— Reference: Wikipedia.org